Diamonds are commonly described by the 4 C’s, colour, cut, clarity & carat. Colour actually refers to a distinct lack of colour. The colour scale starts at d (no colour) and goes to z. Every grade in between has more visible colour. Cut refers to how well cut the stone is. The more symmetrical the facets and the better the polishing on the facets the more the stone will sparkle. Clarity: diamonds are a natural material and therefore not perfect! Inclusions range from carbon spots, to feathers, and other. The clarity scale starts at Flawless which has no inclusions at all then to VVS=very very slightly included, VS=very slightly included, SI=slightly included, and I=Included. Lastly is Carat: Diamonds are sold by weight. We identify the weight using a decimal. 1/10th of a diamond in terms of a percentage is .10ct, ½ a carat is .50ct, one carat is 1.00ct and so on. There are roughly 5 carats in one gram.

Gemstones are either precious or semi-precious. Some examples of precious stones would be ruby, sapphire, emerald, and alexandrite. Common semi-precious stones would be garnet, topaz, amethyst, peridot and many others. We will also include amorphous (no crystal structure) stones with potential high value here. They include jade, amber, and pearls to name a few.